Origin of cryptophyte plastids in Dinophysis from Galician waters: results from field and culture experiments
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AuthorsRial, P. (Pilar); Laza-Martinez, A. (Aitor); Reguera, B. (Beatriz); Raho, N. (Nicolás); Rodríguez, F. (Francisco)
Photosynthetic species of the dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis retain cryptophyte plastids from the Teleaulax/Plagioselmis/Geminigera group via their ciliate prey Mesodinium rubrum, but other cryptophyte and algal sources have occasionally been found. Identifying the specific prey of ciliates fed upon by mixotrophic Dinophysis species is a requisite to improve predictive capabilities of their bloom formation. Here we examined the origin of Dinophysis plastids from Galician waters and their transfer in cross-feeding experiments in the laboratory. Plastid 23S rDNA sequences were obtained from 60 Dinophysis specimens from the Galician Rías Baixas and shelf waters. Most sequences in Dinophysis cells were identical to Teleaulax amphioxeia. Galician shelf samples also yielded T. amphioxeia-type sequences, although one of these was closer to a freshwater cryptophyte, and a few others were related with other taxa (diatoms, red algae and proteobacteria). Mesodinium cf. major, an alternative prey ...