Differences in the toxin profiles of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) strains isolated from different geographical origins: evidence of paralytic toxin, spirolide and gymnodimine
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AuthorsSalgado, P. (Pablo); Riobó, P. (Pilar); Rodríguez, F. (Francisco); Franco, J.M. (José Mariano); Bravo, I. (Isabel)
Among toxin-producing dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium, Alexandrium ostenfeldii is the only species able to produce paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, spirolides (SPXs) and gymnodimines (GYMs). In this study we characterized and compared three A. ostenfeldii strains isolated from the Baltic, Mediterranean, and southern Chile Seas with respect to their toxin profiles, morphology, and phylogeny. Toxin analyses by HPLCeFD and LCeHRMS revealed differences in the toxin profiles of the three strains. The PSP toxin profiles of the southern Chile and Baltic strains were largely the same and included gonyautoxin (GTX)-3, GTX-2, and saxitoxin (STX), although the total PSP toxin content of the Chilean strain (105.83 ± 72.15 pg cell 1) was much higher than that of the Baltic strain (4.04 ± 1.93 pg cell 1). However, the Baltic strain was the only strain that expressed detectable amounts of analogues of GYM-A and GYM-B/-C (48.27 ± 26.12 pg GYM-A equivalents cell 1). The only ...