Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds in five estuaries of the northwest coast of Spain: Ecological and human health impact
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AuthorsSalgueiro-González, N. (Noelia); Turnes-Carou, I. (Isabel); Viñas, L. (Lucía); Muniategui-Lorenzo, S. (Soledad); López-Mahía, P. (Purificación); Prada-Rodríguez, D. (Darío)
Human health impact
The occurrence and spatial distribution of alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol) and bisphenol A were examined in five estuaries along the Northwest coastal area of Spain. As far as we know, no previous works about this topic could be found in the literature. A total of 98 seawater samples were collected during May 2011–July 2012 and analyzed by a highly sensitive DLLME–LC–MS/MS methodology recently developed. Results indicated nonylphenol was the most ubiquitous compound with maximal concentration of 0.337 μg L−1 (Ría de Vigo). The environmental quality standards (EQS) established in Directive 2013/39/EU for 4-tert-octylphenol were slightly exceeded in some sampling points. Fishing harbours, water treatment plant and industrial discharges were supposed as the main sources of contamination. Low and medium ecological risk was determined in all estuaries. Possible endocrine effects on biota and population were estimated in terms of estrogenic ...
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