Contribution of Crenarchaea and Bacteria to autotrophy in the North´s Atlantic Interior
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AuthorsVarela, M.M. (Marta María); Hendrik; Sintes, E. (Eva); Reinthaler, T.; Van-Aken, H.M. (Hendrik M.); Herndl, G.J.
Marine Crenarchaeota are among the most abundant groups of prokaryotes in the ocean and recent reports suggest that they oxidize ammonia as an energy source and inorganic carbon as carbon source, while other studies indicate that Crenarchaeota use organic carbon and hence, live heterotrophically. We used catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) to determine the crenarchaeal and bacterial contribution to total prokaryotic abundance in the (sub)tropical Atlantic. Bacteria contributed ∼50% to total prokaryotes throughout the water column. Marine Crenarchaeota Group I (MCGI) accounted for ∼5% of the prokaryotes in subsurface waters (100 m depth) and between 10 and 20% in the oxygen minimum layer (250–500 m depth) and deep waters (North East Atlantic Deep Water). The fraction of both MCGI and Bacteria fixing inorganic carbon, determined by combining microautoradiography with CARD-FISH (MICRO-CARD-FISH), decreased with depth, ranging from ∼30% in the oxygen ...