Extraction of microalgal toxins by large-scale pumping of seawater in Spain and Norway, and isolation of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2.
MetadataShow full item record
AuthorsRundberget, T.; Sandvik, M.; Larsen, K.; Pizarro, G. (Gemita); Reguera, B. (Beatriz); Castberg, T.; Gustad, E.; Loader, J.I.; Rise, F.; Wilkins, A.L.; Miles, C.O.
Marine biotoxins from microalgae can accumulate in shellfish and lead to poisoning of human consumers as well as fish, marine mammals and sea birds. Toxicological assessment of the toxins and development of analytical methods require large amounts of high-purity toxins and their metabolites. Although these toxins can be obtained in limited amounts from contaminated shellfish or from microalgal cultures, difficulties arise when the toxin-producing microalga is difficult to culture or its identity is not known. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a large-scale method for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of lipophilic biotoxins from natural microalgal blooms in seawater. To enhance subsequent purification of toxins adsorbed on the column, we included a filtration step to release the toxins from the cells while removing insoluble compounds and cellular debris. The efficacy of the method was illustrated by extraction and purification of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 from a high-d ...