Effects of two paralytic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellates on the harpacticoid copepod Euterpina acutifrons
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The effects of two paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing dinoflagellates, Alexandrium minutum Halim (high and low toxin strains) and Gymnodinium catenatum Graham, on the pelagic harpacticoid copepod Euterpina acutifrons Dana were tested in a series of experiments run from October 1994 to May 1995. In small volumes (350 ml), both strains of A. minutum (300 to 350 cells ml-1), and G. catenatum (175 cells ml-1), strongly reduced naupliar activity (about 30 and 17% were inactive after 24 h, respectively). Activity is here defined as movement. In medium volumes (6 litre), 40% of nauplii incubated with the high toxin strain of A. minutum (1000 cells ml-1) and 8% of nauplii incubated with cell-free filtrate of the same culture were inactive after 24 h; these values increased to 50 and 30% respectively after 3 d. In large volumes (20 litre), adult copepods incubated with A. minutum (1000 and 10000 cells ml-1) for 5 d revealed only trace levels of PSP-toxins (paralytic shellfish poisoning) ...