Interactive effects of salinity and temperature on planozygote and cyst formation of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) in culture
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AuthorsFigueroa, R.I. (Rosa Isabel); Vázquez, J.A. (José Antonio); Massanet, A. (Ana); Murado, M.A. (Miguel Anxo); Bravo, I. (Isabel)
Dinoflagellate life cycle
The factors regulating dinoflagellate life-cycle transitions are poorly understood. However, their identification is essential to unravel the causes promoting the outbreaks of harmful algal blooms (HABs) because these blooms are often associated with the formation and germination of sexual cysts. Nevertheless, there is an absolute lack of knowledge on the factors regulating planozygote-cyst transitions on dinoflagellates due to the difficulties of differentiating planozygotes from vegetative stages. In the present study, two different approaches were used to clarify the relevance of environmental factors on planozygote and cyst formation of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. In the first, the effects of changes in initial phosphate (P) and nitrate (N) concentrations in the medium on the percentage of planozygotes formed were examined using flow cytometry. In the second, two-factorial designs were used to determine how salinity (S), temperature (T), and the density of the initial ...