Seasonal variability of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum associated to lipophilic shellfish toxins in a strongly stratified Chilean fjord
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AuthorsAlves-de-Souza, C. (Catharina); Varela, D. (Daniel); Contreras, C. (Cristóbal); Iglesia, P. (Pablo) de la; Fernández, P. (Pamela); Hipp, B. (Byron); Hernández, C. (Cristina); Riobó, P. (Pilar); Reguera, B. (Beatriz); Franco, J.M. (José Mariano); Diogène, J. (Jorge); García, C. (Carlos); Lagos, N. (Néstor)
The fine scale vertical distribution of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum (potential producers of lipophilic shellfish toxins, LSTs) and its relation with LSTs in shellfish was studied in Reloncaví fjord, a strongly stratified system in Southern Chile. Samples were taken over two years from late spring to early autumn (2007–2008 period) and from early spring to late summer (2008–2009 period). Dinophysis spp., in particular Dinophysis acuminata, were always detected, often forming thin layers in the region of the salinity driven pycnocline, with cell maxima for D. acuminata of 28.5×103 cells L−1 in March 2008 and 17.1×103 cells L−1 in November 2008. During the 2008–2009 sampling period, blooms of D. acuminata co-occurred with high densities of cryptophyceans and the ciliate Mesodinium spp. The highest levels of pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2; 2.2 ng L−1) were found in the plankton in February 2009, associated with moderate densities of D. acuminata, Dinophysis tripos and Dinophysis ...