Ingestion of microplastics and occurrence of parasite association in Mediterranean anchovy and sardine
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AuthorsPennino, M.G. (María Gracia); Bachiller, E. (Eneko); Lloret-Lloret, E. (Elena); Esteban-Acón, A. (Antonio); Jadaud, A. (Angélique); Bellido-Millán, J.M. (José María); Coll, M. (Marta)
KeywordsBayesian. Gut contents
Small pelagic fish
We quantified the incidence of microplastics in the gut contents of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and tested which variables influence this abundance, including the prevalence of parasites (i.e., trematoda larvae and nematodes). We detected a 58% occurrence of microplastics ingestion in sardines and a 60% in anchovies. With respect to sardines, the individuals with lower body conditions were found to have the highest microplastics ingestion probabilities, whereas in anchovies such probabilities were observed in individuals with higher gonadosomatic indices and smaller size. The areas with the highest microplastics ingestion probabilities were the Gulf of Alicante for sardines and the Gulf of Lion - Ebro Delta for anchovies. Both species showed a positive relationship between parasites and microplastics ingestion. These results highlight that both parasitism and ingestion of microplastics are concerns ...