Maitotoxin-4, a Novel MTX Analog Produced by Gambierdiscus excentricus
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AuthorsPisapia, F. (Francesco); Sibat, M. (Manoëlla); Herrenknecht, C. (Christine); Lhaute, K. (Korian); Gaiani, G. (Greta); Ferron, P.J. (Pierre-Jean); Fessard, V. (Valérie); Fraga, S. (Santiago); Nascimento, S.M. (Silvia Mattos); Litaker, R.W. (Wayne); Holland, W.C. (William C.); Roullier, C. (Catherine); Hess, P. (Philipp)
Maitotoxins (MTXs) are among the most potent toxins known. These toxins are produced by epi-benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa and may play a role in causing the symptoms associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. A recent survey revealed that, of the species tested, the newly described species from the Canary Islands, G. excentricus, is one of the most maitotoxic. The goal of the present study was to characterize MTX-related compounds produced by this species. Initially, lysates of cells from two Canary Island G. excentricus strains VGO791 and VGO792 were partially purified by (i) liquid-liquid partitioning between dichloromethane and aqueous methanol followed by (ii) size-exclusion chromatography. Fractions from chromatographic separation were screened for MTX toxicity using both the neuroblastoma neuro-2a (N2a) cytotoxicity and Ca2+ flux functional assays. Fractions containing MTX activity were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution ...
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