Strategic and rare elements in Cretaceous-Cenozoic cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts from seamounts in the Canary Island Seamount Province (northeastern tropical Atlantic)
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AuthorsMarino, E.; González, F.J.; Somoza, L.; Lunar, R.; Ortega, L.; Vázquez, J.T. (Juan Tomás); Reyes, J.; Bellido, E.
Thick ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from four Cretaceous seamounts (The Paps, Tropic, Echo and Drago) at the southern Canary Island Seamount Province (CISP) in the northeastern tropical Atlantic were recovered along the flanks and summits from 1700 to 3000 m water depths. CISP is composed of N100 seamounts and submarine hills, is likely the oldest hotspot track in the Atlantic Ocean, and is the most long-lived of known hotspots globally. The Fe-Mn crusts grow on basalt-sedimentary rock substrates below the northeastern tropical Atlantic core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) with a maximum thickness of 250 mm at a water depth of 2400m. The mineralogical and chemical composition of these Fe-Mn crusts indicate a hydrogenetic origin. The main Mn minerals are vernadite with minor interlayered todorokite and as bolane-buserite. Fe oxides are essentially ferroxyhyte and goethite. The Fe-Mn crusts show high average contents in Fe (23.5 wt%), Mn (16.1 wt%), and trace elements like Co (4700 μg/g), ...