Epigenetics in fish gametesand early embryo
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The spermatozoa and oocyte are very specialized cells which possess the unique ability to fuse and to produce an embryo. This embryo will develop into a mature organism capable of producing gametes again. This colloquial statement comprehends however the most complex mechanisms in biology, namely, cell differentiation and cell reprogramming. Epigenetic modifications are major actors in this process, both during gametogenesis and embryo development. The epigenetic concept is resulting from the growing scientific understanding of embryology and genetics, and it is made operational by generic molecular mechanisms, namely DNA methylation, histone tails modifications, and non-coding RNAs. Epigenetic modifications associated with gamete differentiation and early embryo development are quite well described in mammals, but increasing research is developed in fish today, either in model or in aquaculture species. Because fish are living organisms thoroughly exposed to temperature and to water ...